Next came excerpts from President Clinton`s press conference in Tokyo yesterday after the 19th Group of Seven Industrialized Countries Summit, as the Associated Press: STATEMENT Barker et al. (2007, p. 79) evaluated the literature on the Kyoto Protocol`s cost estimates.  Due to the United States` non-participation in the Kyoto Treaty, the cost estimates were significantly lower than the estimates of the previous IPCC Third Assessment Report. Without the participation of the United States and using the Kyoto flexible mechanisms fully, the cost was estimated to be less than 0.05% of Schedule B GDP. This is compared to previous estimates of 0.1 to 1.1%. Without the use of flexible mechanisms, costs were estimated to be less than 0.1% without U.S. participation. This is compared to previous estimates of 0.2 to 2%. These cost estimates were considered to be based on a great deal of evidence and convergence in the literature. I think we should focus on positive things for both of us and be very, very determined about the need for change. But I don`t feel much mockery here, and in fact, I was hoping that the Japanese wouldn`t worry about all the changes in this country. I mean, I mean, a lot of political change is unprecedented in the post-war period, after World War II.
But they are the inevitable part of growth in a democracy and change. To that end, the two heads of state and government signed 68 agreements on Friday, many of which focused on energy development agreements. The 36 countries that committed to reducing their emissions accounted for only 24% of global greenhouse gas emissions in 2010.  Although these countries significantly reduced their emissions during the Kyoto commitment period, other countries increased their emissions to the point where global emissions increased by 32% between 1990 and 2010.  But in the end, one of the main reasons for Osaka`s weak statement might be Abe`s focus on personal diplomacy, especially with Trump. In a sense, that is understandable. The G20 does not have legally binding agreements. But there needs to be unanimous consensus on the final declaration, which makes it essential that everyone, from Trump to Xi, approve the final text that will be presented by the host nation.
OSAKA – The outcome of the summit of 20 heads of state and government in Osaka has shown that holding several large meetings over a relatively short period of time, especially when several fleshy subjects are on the dock, is likely to be the subject of unanimous agreement between countries that sometimes have very different views on each subject in the space of just two days. Gupta et al. (2007)  also examined the 450 ppm projected scenarios for non-Annex I parts. Non-Annex I emissions are projected to be reduced in several regions (Latin America, the Middle East, East Asia and Central Asia) to be significantly reduced under the “business-as-usual” by 2020.  Business-as-usuals are not projected in Schedule I in the absence of new emission control measures. Emissions in all regions outside Annex I are projected to be significantly reduced by 2050 under the “business-as-usual” level.  The 2010 Cancun Agreements provide for voluntary commitments from 76 developed and developing countries to control their greenhouse gas emissions.  In 2010, these 76 countries were collectively responsible for 85% of annual global emissions.   The first conference was held in Berlin in 1995.
The first meetings of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) took place in 2005 in conjunction with COP 11. The 2013 conference was held in Warsaw. Subsequently, COPs were held in Lima (Peru) in 2014 and in Paris in 2015. The 2015 event, COP 21, aimed to keep the average rise in global temperatures below 2 degrees Celsius.  COP 22 was planned for Marrakech, Morocco and COP 23 for Bonn. However, the Osaka summit came just seven months after the last summit in Buenos Aires.